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Honda Accord Background

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Background
Since initiation, Honda has offered several different car body styles and versions of the Accord, and often vehicles marketed under the Accord nameplate concurrently in different regions differ quite substantially. It debuted in 1976 as a compact hatchback, though this style only lasted through 1989, as the line-up was expanded to include a sedan, coupe, and wagon. By the Accord's sixth generation in the 1990s, it evolved into an intermediate vehicle, with one basic platform but with different bodies and proportions to increase its competitiveness against its rivals in different international markets. For the eighth generation of the Accord released for the North America market in 2007, Honda had again chosen to move the model further up-scale and increase its size.[1] This pushed the Accord sedan from the upper limit of what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines as a mid-size car to just above the lower limit of a full-size car,[2] with the coupe still rated as a mid-size car. In 2013, the ninth-generation Accord sedan, with smaller exterior dimensions, was once again classified as a mid-size car at 119 cubic feet (3.4 m3), falling just shy of the "Large Car" classification. However, the current 10th-generation Accord, with similar exterior dimensions, returned to full-size car status with its combined interior space of 123 cubic feet (3.5 m3). The coupe has since been discontinued.

After a period of developing idiosyncratic automobiles such as the Honda 1300 that met a lukewarm response in both Japan and North America, Honda considered pulling out of automobile manufacturing altogether by the early 1970s. However, Honda released a more conventional automobile in 1972 called the "Civic" which immediately reversed their flagging fortunes due to its economy, reliability and low cost in an era of rising fuel prices. The Civic utilized Honda's CVCC technology, later used in the Accord, to help Honda meet emission standards of the 1970s and early 1980s without the added expense of a catalytic converter.[3]

Buoyed by their success with the Civic, Honda turned their sights to developing a larger companion model. For the new model, Honda chose the name "Accord", reflecting "Honda's desire for accord and harmony between people, society and the automobile."[4]

Soichiro Honda was the owner of a 1969 Pontiac Firebird, to which the Accord's predecessor, the Honda 1300, bore a striking frontal resemblance. Initial planning done by Honda for what would become the Accord was for a sporty competitor in the pony car market, at roughly the size of a contemporary Ford Mustang, powered by a six-cylinder engine.With the continuing fuel crisis and tighter emissions regulations surrounding the automotive market, Honda engineers changed their focus on the Accord as a Mustang competitor, and built upon the Civic's successful formula of economy, fuel efficiency and a front-wheel drive layout in a larger package.[6] A December 1975 issue of Motor Trend Magazine had a drawing of a new Honda automobile which was similar in shape to the Volkswagen Scirocco but powered with a CVCC engine used in the Civic. In reality, the design of the Accord was finalized in the fall of 1973 weeks prior to the debut of the Scirocco, which debuted in January 1974. 

In 1982, the Accord became the first car from a Japanese manufacturer to be produced in the United States when production commenced in Marysville, Ohio at Honda's Marysville Auto Plant. The Accord has achieved considerable success, especially in the United States, where it was the best-selling Japanese car for sixteen years (1982–97), topping its class in sales in 1991 and 2001, with around ten million vehicles sold.Numerous road tests, past and present, rate the Accord as one of the world's most reliable vehicles. The Accord has been on the Car and Driver 10Best list a record 30 times.

In 1989, the Accord was the first vehicle sold under an import brand to become the best-selling vehicle in the United States.The first generation Honda Accord was launched on 7 May 1976 as a three-door hatchback with 68 hp (51 kW), a 93.7-inch (2,380.0 mm) wheelbase, and a weight of about 2,000 pounds. Japanese market cars claimed 80 PS (59 kW) JIS (similar to SAE Gross), while European and other export markets received a model without emissions control equipment; it claimed 80 PS as well but according to the stricter DIN norm. It was a platform expansion of the earlier Honda Civic at 4,125 mm (162 in) long. To comply with recently enacted emission regulations enacted in Japan, the engine was fitted with Honda's CVCC technology. The Accord sold well due to its moderate size and great fuel economy. It was one of the first Japanese sedans with features like cloth seats, a tachometer, intermittent wipers, and an AM/FM radio as standard equipment. In 1978 an LX version of the hatchback was added which came with air conditioning, a digital clock, and power steering. Until the Accord, and the closely related Prelude, power steering had not been available to cars under two liters.Japanese buyers were liable for slightly more annual road tax over the smaller Civic, which had a smaller engine.

On 14 October 1977 (a year later in the US market), a four-door sedan was added to the lineup, and power went to 72 hp (54 kW) when the 1,599 cc (97.6 cu in) EF1 engine was supplemented and in certain markets replaced by the 1,751 cc (106.9 cu in) an EK-1 unit. In 1980 the optional two-speed semi-automatic transmission of previous years became a three-speed fully automatic gearbox (a four-speed automatic transaxle was not used in the Accord until the 1983 model year). The North American versions had slightly redesigned bumper trim. Other changes included new grilles and taillamps and remote mirrors added on the four-door (chrome) and the LX (black plastic) models. The CVCC badges were deleted, but the CVCC induction system remained.In North America, the 1981 model year only brought detail changes such as new fabrics and some new color combinations.Nivorno Beige (code No. Y-39) was replaced by Oslo Ivory (No. YR-43). Dark brown was discontinued, as was the bronze metallic. A bit later in 1981 an SE model was added for the first time, with Novillo leather seats and power windows. Base model hatchbacks, along with the four-door, LX, and SE four-door, all received the same smaller black plastic remote mirror. The instrument cluster was revised with mostly pictograms which replaced worded warning lights and gauge markings. The shifter was redesigned to have a stronger spring to prevent unintentional engagement of reverse, replacing the spring-loaded shift knob of the 1976 to 1980 model year cars. By 1981 power for the 1.8 was down to a claimed 68 hp (51 kW) in North America.

Debuting on 22 September 1981 in Japan, Europe, and in North America, this generation of the Accord being produced in Japan, also became the first to be built in the United States, at Honda's plant in Marysville, Ohio. Since its first year in the American market, it also became the best-selling Japanese nameplate in the United States, retaining that position for about 15 years. In Japan, a sister model called the Honda Vigor was launched simultaneously with the new Accord. This allowed Honda to sell the product at different sales channels called Honda Clio, which sold the Accord, and Honda Verno, that sold the Vigor.

Modernizing the interior and exterior, the second generation Accord was mechanically very similar to the original, using the same 1,751 cc (1.751 L; 106.9 cu in) EK-1 CVCC engine. Vehicles with a manual transmission and the CVCC carburator earned 13.6 km/L (38 mpg‑imp; 32 mpg‑US) based on Japanese Government emissions tests using 10 different modes of scenario standards, and 110 PS (80.9 kW; 108.5 bhp), and 23 km/L (65 mpg‑imp; 54 mpg‑US) with consistently maintained speeds at 60 km/h.

This automobile included popular features of the time such as shag carpet, velour cabin trim, and chrome accents. An optional extra on the 1981 Accord was an Electro Gyrocator, the world's first automatic in-car navigation system. Models were available in Silver, Sky Blue, and Beige. The LX hatchback offered a digital clock and slightly higher fuel economy (due to its lighter weight).In the United States, Federal lighting regulations required headlamps of sealed beam construction and standard size and shape on all vehicles, so Accords in North America were equipped with four rectangular headlamp units rather than the aerodynamic composite replaceable-bulb units used on Accords sold outside North America (note European specification imagery). Other Automotive lighting variations included amber front and red rear side marker lights and reflectors in North America, and headlamp washers and a red rear fog lamp for European markets. Japanese-market Accords were unique from all other markets in that they offered adjustable ride height control and side view mirrors installed on the mid-forward fenders.

In 1983, Honda upgraded the automatic transmission to a four-speed, a major improvement over the earlier, three-speed transmission. The manual five-speed transmission remained unchanged. A new 192 km/h speedometer replaced the earlier 136 km/h unit. The Special Edition (SE) featured Novillo leather seating, power windows, power sunroof and door locks. Gray was added as a color option. A slightly modified EK-2 engine was introduced, replacing the earlier EK-1, albeit still carbureted.

By 1983, Accords sold in the eastern United States were produced at the new Marysville plant, with quality considered equal to those produced in Japan. In June 1983, for the 1984 model year, the Accord body was restyled with a slightly downward beveled nose and a new series of 12-valve CVCC powerplants. Globally there was a 1.6 (EY) and also the slightly more powerful ES2 1,829 cc (1.829 L; 111.6 cu in), yielding 86 bhp (64 kW) in federal trim. Honda integrated rear side marker lights and reflectors into the side of the tail light units. European Accords now included a side turn signal repeater just behind each front wheel well. The U.S. requirement for standardized headlamps was rescinded in late 1983, but North American Accords continued to use sealed beams until the 1989 fourth-generation models were released.

The LX offered velour upholstery, auto-reverse cassette stereo, air conditioning, cruise control, power brakes, power steering, power windows and power door locks (sedan only), a digital clock, roof pillar antenna, along with thick black belt moldings, integrated bumpers and flush plastic mock-alloy style wheels covers that resembled the trend-setting Audi 5000. Supplies were tight, as in the Eastern states, the wait was months for a Graphite Gray sedan, a then-popular color. The LX hatchback was the only 1984 version of the Accord to include dual side view mirrors.[citation needed]

The 1984 sedan was available in four exterior colors, Greek White and three metallic options: Columbus Gray, Regency Red (burgundy), and Stratos Blue (steel). The regular hatchback was available in Greek White, Dominican Red, and the metallic Stratos Blue. The 1984 LX hatchback came in three metallic colors only: Graphite Gray, Regency Red, and Copper Brown.

It was one of the first Japanese engineered vehicles to offer computer controlled, fuel-injection with one injector per cylinder, also known as multiple port fuel injection. This arrived on 24 May 1984 on the ES series 1.8 L engine, and was known as Honda's Programmed Fuel Injection, or PGM-FI. This option was not offered until 1985 in the United States market. Vehicles with PGM-FI (ES3 series engine) earned 13.2 km/L (37 mpg‑imp; 31 mpg‑US) based on Japanese Government emissions tests using 10 different modes of scenario standards, with 130 PS (95.6 kW; 128.2 bhp), and 22 km/L (62 mpg‑imp; 52 mpg‑US) with consistently maintained speeds at 60 km/h (37.3 mph).

In 1985, the Special Edition returned as the SE-i, capitalizing on the final year of the second generation's production. A fuel-injected, 110 bhp (82 kW) non-CVCC ES3 engine was exclusive to this model. The moniker, SE-i, was adapted from the SE trim, but included the "-i" to signify the higher trim level's fuel-injected engine. This 12-valve, 1,829 cc (1.829 L; 111.6 cu in) engine was the first non-CVCC engine used in an Accord, and was the same basic engine design used by Honda until 1989. Like the previous SE trim in 1983, the SE-i featured Novillo leather seating, power moonroof, bronze tinted glass, a premium sound system with cassette, and 13-inch alloy wheels. The level of luxury equipment on the SE-i was essentially items that were installed on the Honda Vigor VTL-i, that was only sold in Japan.

Available options differed from market to market. The 1.8-liter engine, updated four-speed automatic transmission, and 'EX' trim level options were first made available in New Zealand during the 1984 model year refresh alongside the 1.6-liter 'LX' model.

Japan generally received more options earlier than the rest of the world. In 1981, the Accord offered an adjustable ride height air suspension in the Japanese market. From 1983 in Japan and 1984 in Europe, the second generation Accord was available with anti-lock brakes (called ALB) as an option. This braking system was the first time that an Accord used four-wheel disc brakes. Fuel injection became available in 1984 in the Japan market with the earlier introduction of the ES3 engine in the SE-i. Models took a year to arrive in North American and European markets with less stringent emissions laws continuing, using carburetors throughout second generation production.

The third generation Accord was introduced in Japan on 4 June 1985 and in Europe and North America later that year. It had a very striking exterior design styled by Toshi Oshika in 1983, that resonated well with buyers internationally. One notable feature was the hidden headlamps. Because this generation was also sold as the Honda Vigor, the Accord received the hidden headlamps. Honda's Japanese dealership channel called Honda Verno all had styling elements that helped identify products only available at Honda Verno. As a result, Japanese market Accords had a Honda Verno styling feature, but were sold at newly established Japanese dealerships Honda Clio with the all-new, luxury Honda Legend sedan, and international Accords were now visually aligned with the Prelude, the CR-X, and the new Integra.

The retractable headlamps of the third generation Accord sedan were in Japan, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, KY region (Arabian countries) and on cars in Taiwan that were imported from the United States. In other countries, the Accord sedan had conventional مبل ویلایی  headlamps, including in Japan from July 1987 on "Accord CA", with CA standing for "Continental Accord". Accords in all other bodies (hatchback, Aerodeck, coupe) had only retractable headlamps worldwide.

At its introduction in 1985, it won the Car of the Year Japan Award.

The third generation Accord became the first Honda to employ double wishbones at both the front and rear ends. While more expensive than competitors' MacPherson strut systems, this setup provided better stability and sharper handling for the vehicle. All had front sway bars and upper models had rear sway bars as well. Brakes were either small all-wheel discs with twin-piston calipers (only available on the Japanese-market 2.0-Si model), larger all-wheel discs with single piston calipers, or a front disc/rear drum system. ABS was available as an option on the 4-wheel disc brake models, though not in North America. Base model Accords rode on 13-inch steel wheels with hubcaps with more expensive models having the option of 14-inch alloy wheels.

The Accord's available engines varied depending on its market: Japan received the A18A, A20A, B18A, B20A and A20A3 (US imported cars); Europe received the A16A1, A20A1, A20A2, A20A3, A20A4, B20A2, and B20A8; Australia and New Zealand received A20A2 and A20A4; other regions received A20A2 and/or A16A1; while United States, Canada and Taiwan (US imported cars) received the A20A1 and A20A3. On Accord 1986 model year engine block was marked as BS and BT in the United States, BS1 and BT1 in Canada, this cars had chassis code BA. Since 1987 the engine block in Indonesia was marked as NA instead of A20A2. The engine block in Thailand was marked as A.

In Japan, the introduction of a 2.0 liter engine obligated Japanese drivers to pay a higher amount of annual road tax compared to the last two previous generations, pushing the Accord into the luxury category in Japan.

The Accord's trim levels ranged from spartan to luxurious. In the Japanese home market, the Accord was available with a full power package, heated mirrors (optional), a digital instrument cluster (optional), sunroof (optional), cruise control, and climate control (which was also optional). Some North European export models also had heated front seats and head light washers. North American and Australian Accords were not available with most of these options, presumably (and in the U.S. in particular) because Honda was seen as a builder of economy cars, and not to cannibalize sales from the recently introduced Acura line.

Throughout the different markets, in addition to the sedan model the Accord was available with different bodystyles which included a three-door hatchback, a three-door shooting-brake called Accord Aerodeck, and a two-door coupe which was added in 1987 for the 1988 model year. The coupe, which was built exclusively in Honda's Marysville, Ohio factory, was "reverse exported" back to Japan where it was known as the US-coupe CA6.

The third-generation Accord was sold in Japan, Europe and New Zealand as a three-door hatchback with a flat roof over the rear seats, known in Europe as a shooting-brake. The bodystyle of a flat roof hatchback was also used on the third generation Honda Civic (third generation) subcompact, the second generation Honda City supermini and the first generation Honda Today kei car. The Honda CR-X was the only three-door hatchback that adopted a fastback, sloping rear hatch "kammback" appearance, demonstrating a performance car appearance identified with Honda Verno products during the mid-1980s.

In North America, the Accord coupe and hatchback models were offered instead. The "Aerodeck" name was reused on the Honda Civic 5-door stationwagon (station wagon), sold in the UK from 1996 to 2000. In parts of Continental Europe, the Accord five-door station wagon (station wagon) was also called the Accord Aerodeck from 1990 until 2008, when the name of the station wagon was renamed the "Accord Tourer". The Aero Deck was only available in Japan at Honda Clio dealerships as a variation of the Accord.

The cargo handling abilities of the Aero Deck were ceded to the fourth generation Accord station wagon (station wagon) in 1990. The Aero Deck was unique to the Accord model line, as the Aero Deck was not available as a Honda Vigor, as the Accord and Vigor were mechanically identical. The AeroDeck returned an aerodynamic value of .34, and the 2600 mm wheelbase returned a spacious interior for both front and rear passengers, on par with a mid-size sedan. Unfortunately, the appearance was not well received in Japan, as the introduction of the Accord Coupe was more well liked. The appearance was more popular in the United Kingdom.

The Aerodeck was equipped with a four-wheel double wishbone suspension, which gave both a comfortable ride and cornering performance. In addition, speed-sensitive power steering is included, which gives the car easy turning assistance at speeds below 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph) during operation, such as parallel parking. Note that the top model in Japan "2.0Si" is to 4w-ALB (4-wheel ABS ) are standard equipment (with option to upgrade in other trim packages).

Visibility from the driver's seat and passenger seat was better due to the lower instrument panel design of the front window and a large windshield. And switches are arranged efficiently and at the time was the driving position can be fine-tuned adjustments.

Because of the shape of the vehicle and the flat roof that continued to the rear of the vehicle, opening the rear hatch had some drawbacks in low clearance environments. The lower part of the hatch was not like one used on a station wagon that went all the way down to the rear bumper, so loading cargo into the back wasn't as convenient as a conventional station wagon with a one piece hatchback. The rear hatch also wrapped into the rear roof, similar to a gull wing door so that the rear glass was in two pieces, one for the back window, and another partially on the rear roof. When open, the hatch rose above the roof at a right angle, providing additional overhead clearance when the hatch was open.

Moreover, because of the emphasis on aiding rear-seat passenger entry, a longer front door was installed, and because power windows were not installed on the lower trim packages "LX", "LX-S" and as such, the window regulator opening felt heavy.

Tenth generation (2018–present)
The tenth generation Accord was unveiled on July 14, 2017.[49] Production began on September 18, 2017, and sales began on October 18, 2017 in the United States as a 2018 model.[50] It was also released in Canada on October 27, 2017.[ The vehicle is equipped with standard Honda Sensing on all models, and a base 1.5 L VTEC Turbo four-cylinder engine that produces 143 kW (192 hp; 194 PS) and 260 N⋅m (190 lbf⋅ft) of torque, mated to a 6-speed manual or continuously variable transmission (CVT). The optional 2.0 L VTEC Turbo four-cylinder engine, which replaced the V6 engine option, was available beginning December 2017. This engine is based on the design of the engine offered in the Civic Type R, but with a smaller turbocharger and more conventional camshaft. The engine, which produced 188 kW (252 hp; 256 PS) and 370 N⋅m (270 lbf⋅ft) of torque is mated to a 6-speed manual or 10-speed automatic transmission. With this generation, the Accord is now exclusively offered as a four-door sedan, the coupe variant being discontinued.

The ASEAN (Southeast Asian) market tenth-generation Accord debuted at the Thailand International Motor Expo on 28 November 2018. It will be available in that market in early 2019.

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